Abdomen Muscles – Organs, Function, Conditions & Exercises

The space between pelvis and chest is called abdomen which is commonly known as belly. Various body organs are located into abdomen and the mesentery (the connecting tissues) keeps them together so they can expand and glide. The organs included in abdomen are as follows:

  • Stomach
  • Small intestines
  • Large intestines
  • Pancreas
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Spleen

Abdominal Cavity

The largest cavity in the body is known as the abdominal cavity which is not just in human but in many animals too and it seize the mass of the viscera. The location of abdominal cavity is above the cavity of pelvic and below the cavity of thoracic.

Abdominal Wall

The abdominal cavity also has boundary which is called abdominal wall and it is split into back (posterior), sides (lateral) and front (anterior). These walls are formed and covered by a set of thin layers. The layers are as follows:

  • Layer of fascia
  • Extraperitoneal fat
  • Parietal peritoneum
  • Transversus abdominis/ transverse abdominal muscle
  • The internal / obliquus internus
  • External oblique / obliquus externus

Blood Vessels

The abdomen is also a way for blood vessels and various essential vessels pass through it including:


Aorta is the main and most important trunk of arterial system and its responsibility is to covey the blood to all the body organs from heart’s left ventricle. Except the lungs are organs are supplied blood through this system.

Inferior vena cava

This is the large vein that releases the blood into heart’s right entrance hall.


There is a number of other small branches of those veins which play their active role to run this process efficiently.

Functions of Abdominal Muscles

Some of very important functions are performed by the abdominal muscles and some of them are mentioned here in this article.

  1. In case the glottis gets closed while the pelvis and thorax get fixed, the abdominal muscle play a major role in facilitating various important functions such as urination, cough, childbirth, defecation, singing and vomiting .
  2. If the thorax gets fixed, you will need to pull the pelvis up and in this process, the abdominal muscles will aid you by keeping vertebral column to the sideways and will facilitate the rotation of the trunks.
  3. Enable the trunk movement in forward position if the pelvis gets fixed.
  4. These will also help you prevent the level of extreme hyperextension.
  5. Both the internal obliques and the transverse abdominus muscles are located into depth and cannot be reached or touched externally but both of them play an integral role in making body posture and greatly involved in lateral flexion and rotation of the spine.
  6. Likewise the internal obliques, the external obliques are also very important and get greatly involved in lateral flexion and rotation of the spine. Your spine is also stabilized when getting to the upright position.
  7. One more abdominal muscle is known as rectus abdominus muscle which is not very superficial but yet it is important as the tendonous sheath which is extended right from the obliques (external) covers rectus abdominus and this is the muscle that will help you get your six packs abs.
  8. The other functions of abdominal muscles are to provide breathing aid, inner organs protection and postural support.

Exercises and Stretches to Target Abdomen

1) 3/4 Sit-Up

It is a very good exercises to target abdominals and the best thing about it is that you only need your body to perform this.

2) Air Bike

This one is an abdominal exercise in which you just have to lie on your back and move your legs like you are riding a bike. This does not require any equipment.

3) Ab Crunch Machine

It requires a machine which is often available at gyms and fitness centers where you will be allowed to work freely.

4) Ab Roller

It is a proven equipment to tone your abdominal muscles. With the help of it you can easily tone your lower abs, shoulders and back arms at the same time.

5) Advanced Kettlebell Windmill

It is a difficult exercise but those who use it can have great abs muscles in very early stage of their training. The required equipment is Kettlebells.

Abdomen Conditions


The abdominal structures can be inflamed which will cause extreme pain and rigidity. This condition usually occurs because of infection or rupturing with one of abdominal organs.


In this case, the gallbladder gets inflammation which is resulted into severe pain into right-sided abdominal. This condition is usually caused by blockage of the duct for exiting the gallbladder.


In Dyspepsia, the stomach and digestive problems occur and these may be caused by some kind of serious health condition.


In this condition, appendix gets inflammation in right lower colon. The normally and common way to remove appendix is surgery.


Constipation is very common problem and a large number of people facing this. In this problem, the sufferer has 3 or even less bowel movements throughout the week. However, this condition can be improved with proper diet and exercises.


The stomach can get inflamed which may lead to pain or nausea. The major causes of Gastritis are H. pylori infection, excessive consumption of alcohol, NSAIDs, and various other factors.


Gastroparesis is the condition in which stomach takes time to empty and works quite slowly which may be a result of damage to the nerve because of diabetes or various other problems. The common symptoms are nausea and vomiting.

Intestinal obstruction

Sometimes, a certain region of large or small intestine get blocked which may result into stoppage of working of the entire intestine area. In this condition, the most common symptoms are known as abdominal distension and vomiting.


The pancreatitis can be caused by an inflammation with the pancreas, consumption of alcohol, drugs, trauma & gallstones. There might be various other reasons which are still unknown.


Hepatitis is usually caused by the viral infection but there are other causes too such as the use of drugs and weak immune system.


In this case, the liver is scarred by chronic type of inflammation. Extreme consumption of drugs, alcohol and chronic hepatitis can be the major causes of this problem.


There may be buildup of abdominal fluid which is usually caused by the cirrhosis. In case of ascites, the abdomen may get protruded extraordinarily.

Abdominal hernia

The abdominal fascia may have a gap or weakening which may cause protruding of a certain area of intestine.

Abdominal distension

Sometimes, the gas in intestine increases which may cause swollen of the abdominal area.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

Aorta’s wall may get weakened which will develop something like a balloon in vessel that keeping growing and in a few years it becomes so large even it may also burst in case of getting much larger than the usual.